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This paper reports the results of a psychobiographical investigation, using the Millon-Type Political Personality Checklist, of the political personalities of outgoing South African president F. W. de Klerk and newly elected South African president Nelson Mandela, and examines the interactional influence of their respective personalities in facilitating South Africa’s transition from apartheid state to nonracial democracy.


"A Millon-Based Study of Political Personality: Nelson Mandela and F. W. de Klerk -- Part I: Method and Preliminary Results" is available at