Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Leadership Studies | Other Political Science | Personality and Social Contexts | Political Science | Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences


This paper reports the method and preliminary findings of an investigation of the political personalities of South African president F.W. de Klerk and African National Congress president Nelson Mandela. The purpose of the study was to assess the utility of Theodore Millon’s personological model as an alternative or supplementary conceptual framework and methodology for the assessment of political personality. Conceptually, the investigation was conducted from the perspective of a model of personality compatible with Axis II of DSM-III-R, which serves as an important psychodiagnostic frame of reference for the practice of contemporary psychiatry and clinical psychology. Methodologically, the investigation involved personality appraisals at a distance, using an instrument adapted from the work of Millon and his associates.


“A Millon-Based Study of Political Personality: Nelson Mandela and F. W. de Klerk -- Part II: Further Results and Implications” is available at