Restrictive Emotionality and Affectionate Behavior in Adolescent Males: A Small Groups Norms-challenging Experimental Intervention

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Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences


Michael Livingston, Psychology


This study examined the effects of a Small Groups Norms-challenging Model intervention (SGNM) on restrictive emotionality (RE) and affectionate behavior (RABBM). Participants were 23 males, ages 12-18, from a small preparatory school. Two modified Gender Role Conflict (GRCS) Scales were used to individually assess participants' actual RE and RABBM and perceptions about RE and RABBM in other high school students at their school. Twelve subjects participated in SGNM intervention while 11 participants were in the control condition. At 3 and 7 weeks after the intervention, participants completed both modified GRCS. Statistical analyses revealed significantly or near significantly lower perceived and actual RE and RABBM scores in intervention participants. The researcher noted potential social desirability issues and discussed future research applications.