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Bioinformatics | Computer Sciences | Eye Diseases | Optometry


The most common eye infection in people with diabetes is diabetic retinopathy (DR). It might cause blurred vision or even total blindness. Therefore, it is essential to promote early detection to prevent or alleviate the impact of DR. However, due to the possibility that symptoms may not be noticeable in the early stages of DR, it is difficult for doctors to identify them. Therefore, numerous predictive models based on machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) have been developed to determine all stages of DR. However, existing DR classification models cannot classify every DR stage or use a computationally heavy approach. Common metrics such as accuracy, F1 score, precision, recall, and AUC-ROC score are not reliable for assessing DR grading. This is because they do not account for two key factors: the severity of the discrepancy between the assigned and predicted grades and the ordered nature of the DR grading scale.

This research proposes computationally efficient ensemble methods for the classification of DR. These methods leverage pre-trained model weights, reducing training time and resource requirements. In addition, data augmentation techniques are used to address data limitations, improve features, and improve generalization. This combination offers a promising approach for accurate and robust DR grading. In particular, we take advantage of transfer learning using models trained on DR data and employ CLAHE for image enhancement and Gaussian blur for noise reduction. We propose a three-layer classifier that incorporates dropout and ReLU activation. This design aims to minimize overfitting while effectively extracting features and assigning DR grades. We prioritize the Quadratic Weighted Kappa (QWK) metric due to its sensitivity to label discrepancies, which is crucial for an accurate diagnosis of DR. This combined approach achieves state-of-the-art QWK scores (0.901, 0.967 and 0.944) in the Eyepacs, Aptos, and Messidor datasets.