Iraq's environment has experienced significant pollution and degradation, earning it the dubious distinction of being one of the most polluted and degraded regions globally, according to the Globe Pollution Review. The past three decades of armed conflict have exacted a heavy toll on the country, resulting in widespread human suffering, including countless fatalities, injuries, and a massive displacement of people. Amidst this death and destruction, the ecosystem has also endured severe damage, and its decline carries long-lasting implications.

The environmental crisis in Iraq has been worsened by the presence of extremist groups such as the Islamic State (ISIS) and various militia groups. These groups have compounded the damage already caused by the protracted conflict in the country. Everywhere ISIS has operated, significant environmental degradation has occurred, posing severe health risks to the local population.

A qualitative approach, including a review of relevant literature and analysis of case studies, will be used to explore the environmental consequences of armed conflicts, militia activities, and oil industry operations in Iraq. The study will also examine the long-term health risks associated with environmental degradation caused by intense urban combat.

The study reveals that a combination of factors, including bomb remnants, extremist group activities, and oil industry pollution, has led to Iraq's environmental devastation. As a result of the conflict, oil and gas facilities have transformed into significant sources of health and environmental hazards. Furthermore, urban combat involving airstrikes, VBIEDs, and artillery has created long-lasting ecological and health hazards due to the destruction of industrial sites and critical infrastructures in densely populated areas.

This research paper highlights the intricate relationship between war, terrorism, and the environment in Iraq. It sheds light on the destructive effects of armed conflict on the ecosystem and emphasizes the urgent need for comprehensive environmental remediation efforts. Through a comprehensive analysis of available literature, this research explores the direct and indirect ecological consequences of armed conflicts and acts of terrorism in Iraq. Addressing the pollution and ecological devastation will not only contribute to the well-being of the Iraqi people but also foster long-term stability and sustainable development in the country.