Spinoza and the Discovery of Morality
Arts and Humanities | Ethics and Political Philosophy | Philosophy
“The Theological-Political Treatise discovers the existence of morality. The life of justice and charity it advocates, unlike the philosophical life of the intellectual love of God described in the Ethics, is a moral life available to everyone. The life of justice and charity is a life of obedience to the sovereign, yet there are universal moral laws that transcend – although never contradict – the dictates of any particular sovereign. Morality, that is, is as different from politics as it is from ethics and philosophy.”
Garver, Eugene. "Spinoza and the Discovery of Morality." History of Philosophy Quarterly 23, no. 4 (October 2006): 357-374. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27745070.