The author of the Gospel of Matthew, staying true to the usage of the word in Greek and Hebrew culture, uses the word shepherd as a direct critique of the Roman social structures that oppressed and marginalized the majority of the Empire during the time of Christ and the time of the writing of the Gospel. This direct confrontation is a timeless call, present in modern day liberation theology, as Christians are called to confront unjust social structures and distill hope in the lives of the oppressed and marginalized members of society by making God’s promises of Gustavo Gutiérrez’ utopia known.
Nelson, Matthew. 2018. The Liberating Christ: From the Gospel of Matthew to Modern Day Liberation. Obsculta 11, (1) : 113-128. https://digitalcommons.csbsju.edu/obsculta/vol11/iss1/10.