## Mathematics Faculty Publications

### LIGHTS OUT! on graph products over the ring of integers modulo k

Article

5-2021

Mathematics

#### Abstract

LIGHTS OUT! is a game played on a finite, simple graph. The vertices of the graph are the lights, which may be on or off, and the edges of the graph determine how neighboring vertices turn on or off when a vertex is pressed. Given an initial configuration of vertices that are on, the object of the game is to turn all the lights out. The traditional game is played over Z2" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; line-height: 0; font-size: 15.26px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 1px 0px; color: rgb(85, 85, 85); font-family: "Source Sans Pro", "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; position: relative;">Z2Z2, where the vertices are either lit or unlit, but the game can be generalized to Zk" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; line-height: 0; font-size: 15.26px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 1px 0px; color: rgb(85, 85, 85); font-family: "Source Sans Pro", "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; position: relative;">ZkZk, where the lights have different colors. Previously, the game was investigated on Cartesian product graphs over Z2" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; line-height: 0; font-size: 15.26px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 1px 0px; color: rgb(85, 85, 85); font-family: "Source Sans Pro", "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; position: relative;">Z2Z2. We extend this work to Zk" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; line-height: 0; font-size: 15.26px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 1px 0px; color: rgb(85, 85, 85); font-family: "Source Sans Pro", "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; position: relative;">ZkZk and investigate two other fundamental graph products, the direct (or tensor) product and the strong product. We provide conditions for which the direct product graph and the strong product graph are solvable based on the factor graphs, and we do so using both open and closed neighborhood switching over Zk" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; line-height: 0; font-size: 15.26px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 1px 0px; color: rgb(85, 85, 85); font-family: "Source Sans Pro", "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; position: relative;">ZkZk.

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