Volume 84, Issue 2 (2012)

Limestone layers, with interspersed softer layers of calcareous marls and clays, of the Miocene-age Port Campbell Limestone are exposed in the sea cliffs of western Victoria (east of Warrnambool) Australia. The upper layers of the Port Campbell Limestone are more resistant than the lower layers, which allows for high-energy waves of the Southern Ocean to undermine the sea cliffs ultimately leading to the development of sea caves, sea arches, sea stacks, and wave-cut platforms. In some places along this stretch of the Southern Ocean, such as in this photo, one can spot nearly every example of coastal erosion in very close proximity to each other. [Photo by Larry Davis]




Larry E. Davis
James C. Walters