Spinoza and the Discovery of Morality

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“The Theological-Political Treatise discovers the existence of morality. The life of justice and charity it advocates, unlike the philosophical life of the intellectual love of God described in the Ethics, is a moral life available to everyone. The life of justice and charity is a life of obedience to the sovereign, yet there are universal moral laws that transcend – although never contradict – the dictates of any particular sovereign. Morality, that is, is as different from politics as it is from ethics and philosophy.”